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My 25 Years as Editor of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

No abstract available 01/01/2015 01:00 AM

What STD Means to Me

No abstract available 01/01/2015 01:00 AM

Changing of the Guard

No abstract available 01/01/2015 01:00 AM

Gonorrhea Treatment Practices in the STD Surveillance Network, 2010–2012

imageBackgroundReplacing oral treatments with ceftriaxone is a central component of public health efforts to slow the emergence of cephalosporin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States; US gonorrhea treatment guidelines were revised accordingly in 2010. However, current US gonorrhea treatment practices have not been well characterized. MethodsSix city and state health departments in Cycle II of the STD Surveillance Network (SSuN) contributed data on all gonorrhea cases reported in 101 counties and independent cities. Treatment data were obtained through local public health surveillance and interviews with a random sample of patients. Cases were weighted to adjust for site-specific sample fractions and for differential nonresponse by age, sex, and provider type. ResultsFrom 2010 to 2012, 135,984 gonorrhea cases were reported in participating areas, 15,246 (11.2%) of which were randomly sampled. Of these, 7,851 (51.5%) patients were interviewed. Among patients with complete treatment data, 76.8% received ceftriaxone, 16.4% received an oral cephalosporin, and 6.9% did not receive a cephalosporin; 51.9% of persons were treated with a regimen containing ceftriaxone and either doxycycline or azithromycin. Ceftriaxone treatment increased significantly by year (64.1% of patients in 2010, 79.3% in 2011, 85.4% in 2012; P = 0.0001). Ceftriaxone use varied widely by STD Surveillance Network site (from 44.6% to 95.1% in 2012). ConclusionsMost persons diagnosed as having gonorrhea between 2010 and 2012 in the United States received ceftriaxone, and its use has increased since the release of the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention STD Treatment Guidelines. 01/01/2015 01:00 AM

Could Home Sexually Transmitted Infection Specimen Collection With e-Prescription Be a Cost-Effective Strategy for Clinical Trials and Clinical Care?

imageBackgroundResults of a recent demonstration project evaluating feasibility, acceptability, and cost of a Web-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and e-prescription treatment program (eSTI) suggest that this approach could be a feasible alternative to clinic-based testing and treatment, but the results need to be confirmed by a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. MethodsWe modeled a decision tree comparing (1) cost of eSTI screening using a home collection kit and an e-prescription for uncomplicated treatment versus (2) hypothetical costs derived from the literature for referral to standard clinic-based STI screening and treatment. Primary outcome was number of STIs detected. Analyses were conducted from the clinical trial perspective and the health care system perspective. ResultsThe eSTI strategy detected 75 infections, and the clinic referral strategy detected 45 infections. Total cost of eSTI was $94,938 ($1266/STI detected) from the clinical trial perspective and $96,088 ($1281/STI detected) from the health care system perspective. Total cost of clinic referral was $87,367 ($1941/STI detected) from the clinical trial perspective and $71,668 ($1593/STI detected) from the health care system perspective. ConclusionsResults indicate that eSTI will likely be more cost-effective (lower cost/STI detected) than clinic-based STI screening, both in the context of clinical trials and in routine clinical care. Although our results are promising, they are based on a demonstration project and estimates from other small studies. A comparative effectiveness research trial is needed to determine actual cost and impact of the eSTI system on identification and treatment of new infections and prevention of their sequelae. 01/01/2015 01:00 AM

Trends and Patterns of Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents and Adults Aged 14 to 59 Years, United States

imageBackgroundEvaluation of sexual behaviors is essential to better understand the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and their sequelae. MethodsThe National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) is an ongoing probability sample survey of the US population. Using NHANES sexual behavior data from 1999 to 2012, we performed the following: (1) trend analyses among adults aged 25 to 59 years by 10-year birth cohorts and (2) descriptive analyses among participants aged 14 to 24 years. Sex was defined as vaginal, anal, or oral sex. ResultsAmong adults aged 25 to 59 years, median age at sexual initiation decreased between the 1940–1949 and 1980–1989 cohorts from 17.9 to 16.2 among females (Ptrend < 0.001) and from 17.1 to 16.1 among males (Ptrend < 0.001). Median lifetime partners increased between the 1940–1949 and 1970–1979 cohorts, from 2.6 to 5.3 among females (Ptrend < 0.001) and from 6.7 to 8.8 among males (Ptrend < 0.001). The percentage of females reporting ever having a same-sex partner increased from 5.2% to 9.3% between the 1940–1949 and 1970–1979 cohorts (Ptrend < 0.001). Among participants aged 14 to 24 years, the percentage having had sex increased with age, from 12.5% among females and 13.1% among males at age 14 years to more than 75% at age 19 years for both sexes. Among sexually experienced 14- to 19-year-olds, 45.2% of females and 55.0% of males had at least 3 lifetime partners; 39.4% of females and 48.6% of males had at least 2 partners in the past year. The proportion of females aged 20 to 24 years who reported ever having a same-sex partner was 14.9%. The proportion of participants aged 14–19 or 20–24 years reporting ever having sex did not differ by survey year from 1999 to 2012 for either males or females. ConclusionsSexual behaviors changed with successive birth cohorts, with more pronounced changes among females. A substantial proportion of adolescents are sexually active and have multiple partners. These data reinforce existing recommendations for sexual health education and sexually transmitted infection prevention targeting adolescents before sexual debut. 01/01/2015 01:00 AM

Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolated From Guangzhou, China, 2000 to 2005 and 2008 to 2013

imageAbstractA total of 1224 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Guangzhou in 2 periods (2000–2005 and 2008–2013) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The percentage of penicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates increased from 71.1% (473/665) to 90.9% (508/559) and 88.9% (591/665) to 98.0% (548/559), respectively. All isolates remain susceptible to spectinomycin and ceftriaxone, with increasing minimum inhibitory concentrations. 01/01/2015 01:00 AM

Test Positivity for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis Infection Among a Cohort of Individuals Released From Jail in Marion County, Indiana

imageBackgroundIndividuals entering jails have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), but there are few data on STI in the postincarceration period. This study aimed to describe rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis infection among individuals released from Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana jails. MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals incarcerated in Marion County, Indiana jails from 2003 to 2008 (n = 118,670). We linked county jail and public health data to identify individuals with positive STI test results in the 1 year after release from jail. Rates per 100,000 individuals and Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for each STI, stratified by demographic, STI, and jail characteristics. ResultsWe found significantly higher rates of STI in this cohort than in the general population, with rates in the 1 year after release being 2 to 7 times higher for chlamydia, 5 to 24 times higher for gonorrhea, and 19 to 32 times higher for syphilis compared with rates in the general population. Characteristics most associated with increased risk of a positive STI test result among this cohort were younger age for chlamydia and gonorrhea, older age for syphilis, black race for men, being jailed for prostitution for women, history of STI, and history of prior incarceration. ConclusionsThis study found high rates of STIs among a cohort of individuals recently released from jail and identified a number of risk factors. Further study is needed to improve targeted STI testing and treatment among this high-risk population. 01/01/2015 01:00 AM