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A Daily Diary Analysis of Condom Breakage and Slippage During Vaginal Sex or Anal Sex Among Adolescent Women

imageBackground: Adolescent women are disproportionately impacted by the adverse outcomes associated with sexual activity, including sexually transmitted infections (STI). Condoms as a means of prevention relies on use that is free of usage failure, including breakage and/or slippage. This study examined the daily prevalence of and predictors of condom breakage and/or slippage during vaginal sex and during anal sex among adolescent women. Methods: Adolescent women (N = 387; 14 to 17 years) were recruited from primary care clinics for a longitudinal cohort study of STIs and sexual behavior. Data were daily partner-specific sexual diaries. Random intercept mixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the fixed effect of each predictor on condom breakage/slippage during vaginal or during anal sex (Stata, 13.0), adjusting model coefficients for the correlation between repeated within-participant diary entries. Results: Condom slippage and/or breakage varied across sexual behaviors and was associated with individual-specific (eg, age and sexual interest) and partner-specific factors (eg, negativity). Recent behavioral factors (eg, experiencing slippage and/or breakage in the past week) were the strongest predictors of current condom slippage and/or breakage during vaginal or anal sex. Conclusions: Factors associated with young women's condom breakage/slippage during vaginal or during anal sex should be integrated as part of STI prevention efforts and should be assessed as part of ongoing routine clinical care. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Increased Partner Risk Characteristic Among Adolescents Using Alcohol In the Moment

imageBackground: Alcohol is a recognized risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases acquisition, but the mechanism is unclear. Potentially, adolescents using alcohol in the 2 hours before sex (in-the-moment use) have riskier sexual partners. Methods: We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between in-the-moment alcohol use and partner risk characteristics reported for the most recent sex among primarily 17- to 18-year-old adolescents originally recruited from a representative sample of Chicago public elementary schools. We created 3 composite partner risk profiles: partner familiarity risk (casual and unexpected), partner context risk (age discordance and met in public), and overall risk using all measures except partner alcohol use. Results: Teens who reported any in-the-moment alcohol use were more likely than nondrinking teens to report casual (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.1–4.9), unexpected (AOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0–2.5), age discordant (AOR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.0–4.6), or met in public partners (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.1). For each composite measure, the number of partner risk characteristics reported increased linearly with the percent of teens drinking in the moment (Cochran-Armitage trend, P < 0.0001). Compared with zero characteristics, in-the-moment alcohol use was associated with increased odds of reporting 1 (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7–4.5), 2 (AOR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.7, 7.6), or 3 to 4 characteristics (AOR, 7.1; 95% CI, 3.3–15.3). Conclusions: Our findings expand the link between in-the-moment alcohol use and partner risk reported in prior studies to encompass adolescents' general sexual experiences and additional partner characteristics including the highly associated composite characteristics. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Cost-Effectiveness of Dual Antimicrobial Therapy for Gonococcal Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Netherlands

imageBackground: In response to the rising threat of resistance to first-line antibiotics for gonorrhea, international guidelines recommend dual antimicrobial therapy. However, some countries continue to recommend monotherapy. We assess the cost-effectiveness of dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin compared with monotherapy with ceftriaxone, for control of gonorrhea among men who have sex with men in the Netherlands. Methods: We developed a transmission model and calculated the numbers of new gonorrhea infections, consultations at health care specialists, tests, and antibiotic doses. With these numbers, we calculated costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) with each treatment; and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of dual therapy compared to monotherapy. The impact of gonorrhea on human immunodeficiency virus transmission was not included in the model. Results: In the absence of initial resistance, dual therapy can delay the spread of ceftriaxone resistance by at least 15 years, compared to monotherapy. In the beginning, when there is no resistance, dual therapy results in high additional costs, without any QALY gains. When resistance spreads over time, the additional costs of dual therapy decline, the gained QALYs increase, the ICER drops off and, after 50 years, falls below €20,000 per QALY gained. If azithromycin resistance is initially prevalent, resistance to the first-line treatment rises almost equally fast with both treatment strategies and the ICER remains extremely high. Conclusions: Compared with ceftriaxone monotherapy, dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin can considerably delay the spread of ceftriaxone resistance, but may only be cost-effective in the long run and in the absence of initial resistance. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Déjà vu? A Comparison of Syphilis Outbreaks in Houston, Texas

imageBackground: After reaching an all-time low in 2000, syphilis incidence in the United States has increased as the burden shifted from heterosexuals to men who have sex with men (MSM). Houston, Texas, experienced 2 outbreaks of syphilis during this transformation in trends. Further evaluation is necessary to determine if these outbreaks occurred among the same subpopulations. Methods: Surveillance data collected on all reported infectious syphilis cases in Houston from 1971 to 2013 were analyzed. Trends in incidence among MSM and human immunodeficiency virus-positive Houston residents were examined. Peak syphilis years subsequent to 1999, years 2007 and 2012, were compared to determine if outbreaks arose in distinctive subpopulations. Categorical variables between these years were compared using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, whereas further associations between the years were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Incidence among MSM was 20.9 to 32.1 times higher than other men from 2005 to 2013. After adjusting for covariates, cases in 2012 were significantly more likely to be Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.03–2.53), reported meeting partners via the Internet (AOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.18–2.58), and engaged in anonymous sex (AOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.40–2.63) in comparison to cases in 2007. Conclusions: We found marked disparities of syphilis by subpopulation in Houston. Herein, we present evidence that outbreaks have been distinct in a major southern city with a high burden of syphilis. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Full House: A Retrospective Analysis of High Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevalence among Adult Film Actors at a Singular Residence

imageBackground: During a routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) investigation, Florida Department of Health staff identified a house (house A) in which over 150 individuals had resided at least briefly. Further investigation revealed that house A is used by the producer of a small adult film production company to board his actors. This report describes sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among male actors in gay adult films residing in a common Florida residence. Methods: LexisNexis Accurint was used to identify house A residents since October 2002 when the producer arrived. Information on STIs and interview data were obtained from Florida's STI surveillance system. An infection was considered to be associated with residence in house A if the date of diagnosis occurred 6 months before an individual's residence start date through 6 months after his residence end date. Results: Excluding the producer, 150 men resided in house A starting from September 2003 to July 2015. Forty-six individuals had a reported case of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and/or chlamydia with 92 infections total. Forty-two (46%) infections among 24 men were considered associated with residence in house A. Conclusions: LexisNexis Accurint was a useful tool for identifying house A residents, a highly mobile and highly sexually active population. There is a high prevalence of STIs among residents, but it is unclear where transmission is occurring. Settings like house A are good candidates for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and active STI screenings and may be an opportunity for public health officials to intervene in high-risk groups to reduce STI rates in the community. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Earlier Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Routine Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Screening of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men Attending A Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic: A Longitudinal Study

imageBackground: In 2007, routine hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing was introduced for men who have sex with men (MSM) with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive or unknown status attending a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinic. We evaluated whether this screening resulted in additional and earlier HCV diagnoses among MSM who also attend HIV clinics. Methods: At first STI consultation, HIV-positive MSM and MSM opting-out of HIV testing (HIV-status-unknown) were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV). During follow-up consultations, only previously HCV-negative men were tested. Retrospectively, STI clinic and HIV clinic HCV diagnosis dates were compared. Results: One hundred twelve (6.4%) of 1742 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3–7.6%) HIV-positive and 3 (0.7%) of 446 (95% CI, 0.2–2.0%) HIV-status-unknown MSM tested anti–HCV-positive at first consultation. During follow-up consultations, 32 HIV-positive (incidence HCV-positive: 2.35/100 person years (PY) (95% CI, 1.66–3.33)) and 0 (1-sided, 97.5% CI, 0.0–3.76) HIV-status-unknown MSM became anti–HCV-positive. Four (11.8%) of 34 HIV-positive MSM notified by their sexual partner of HCV tested anti–HCV-positive. Of 163 HIV-positive MSM with HCV antibodies, 78 reported a history of HCV. HCV diagnosis data at the HIV clinic was requested for the remaining 85 MSM and available for 54 MSM. Of these 54 MSM, 28 (51.9%) had their first HCV diagnosis at the STI clinic, of whom 7 concurrently with HIV. At their next scheduled HIV clinic consultation, 3 HCV cases probably would have been missed. Conclusions: The introduction of routine anti-HCV testing at the STI outpatient clinic resulted in additional and earlier HCV detection among HIV-positive MSM. Testing should be continued among HIV-positive MSM, at least for those not (yet) under the care of an HIV clinic and those notified of HCV by their sexual partner. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

imageBackground: Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. Methods: We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Results: Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Conclusions: Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Higher HPV16 and HPV18 Penile Viral Loads Are Associated With Decreased Human Papillomavirus Clearance in Uncircumcised Kenyan Men

imageBackground: Whether higher penile human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load is associated with a lower rate of HPV clearance remains unknown. Objectives: We examined the association between penile HPV16 and HPV18 viral load and subsequent HPV clearance in uncircumcised Kenyan men. Study Design: Participants were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative, sexually active, 18- to 24-year-old men randomized to the control arm of a male circumcision trial in Kisumu, Kenya. Men provided exfoliated penile cells from two anatomical sites (glans/coronal sulcus and shaft) every 6 months for 2 years. GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction was used to identify 44 HPV-DNA types. Human papillomavirus viral load testing was conducted using a LightCyler real-time polymerase chain reaction assay; viral load was classified as high (>250 copies/scrape) or low (≤250 copies/scrape), for nonquantifiable values. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling were used to examine the association between HPV viral load and HPV clearance. Results: A total of 1097 men, with 291 HPV16 and 131 HPV18 cumulative infections over 24 months were analyzed. Human papillomavirus clearance at 6 months after first HPV detection was lower for high versus low viral load HPV16 infections in the glans (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46–0.92)] and shaft (aHR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.16–0.90), and HPV18 infections in the glans (aHR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01–0.17). Discussion: High versus low HPV viral load was associated with a reduced HPV clearance for HPV16 infections in the glans and shaft, and for HPV18 infections in the glans, among young uncircumcised men. Reduced clearance of high viral load HPV16 and HPV18 infections in men may increase HPV transmission to their female partners as well as enhance the development of penile lesions in comparison to men with low viral load HPV infections. 09/01/2016 01:00 AM