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Opt-Out Referral of Men Who Have Sex With Men Newly Diagnosed With HIV to Partner Notification Officers: Results and Yield of Sexual Partners Being Contacted

imageBackground: Given its potential for reducing the proportion of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) unaware of their diagnosis, partner notification for HIV has been underutilized. This study aimed to determine if the implementation of opt-out referral of men who have sex with men, newly diagnosed with HIV, to partner notification officers (PNO) increased the proportion of sexual partners notified. Methods: In April 2013, all individuals newly diagnosed with HIV at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia were referred to Department of Health PNO to facilitate partner notification. The number of sexual partners reported by men and the proportion contacted in the 12 months before (opt-in period) and after (opt-out period) this policy change were determined through review of the clinical PNO records. Results: Overall, 111 men were diagnosed with HIV during the study period. Compared with men in the opt-in period (n = 51), men in the opt-out period (n = 60) were significantly more likely to accept assistance from the PNO (12 [24%] vs 51 [85%]; P < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of reported partners were notified with opt-out referral (85/185, 45.9%; 95% confidence interval, 38.6–53.4) compared with opt-in referral (31/252, 12.3%; 95% confidence interval, 8.5–17.0) (P < 0.001). Discussion: Opt-out referral to PNO was associated with a substantially higher proportion of partners at risk of HIV being contacted. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011

imageBackground: Annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is considered a key strategy for HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). In Puerto Rico, HIV research has primarily focused on injection drug use, yet male-to-male sexual transmission has been increasing in recent years. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system collected in 2011 in San Juan, Puerto Rico, were analyzed to identify factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (recent testing). Results: Overall, 50% of participants were tested recently. In the multivariate analysis, testing recently was associated with having multiple partners in the past 12 months (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] [≥4 vs 1 partner] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2–2.0), visiting a health care provider in the past 12 months (aPR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04–1.8), and disclosing male-male attraction/sex to a health care provider (aPR< 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1–1.7). Conclusions: Human immunodeficiency virus testing was suboptimal among MSM in San Juan. Strategies to increase HIV testing among MSM may include promoting HIV testing for all sexually active MSM including those with fewer partners, increasing utilization of the healthcare system, and improving patient-provider communication. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

The Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention and Reproductive Health Text Messages on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Young Women in Rural Kenya: A Pilot Study

imageBackground: More than half of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals in Kenya are unaware of their status, and young women carry a disproportionate burden of incident HIV infections. We sought to determine the effect of an SMS intervention on uptake of HIV testing among female Kenyan college students. Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental study to increase HIV testing among women 18 to 24 years old. Four midlevel training colleges in Central Kenya were allocated to have their study participants receive either weekly SMS on HIV and reproductive health topics or no SMS. Monthly 9-question SMS surveys were sent to all participants for 6 months to collect data on HIV testing, sexual behavior, and HIV risk perception. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression to detect differences in the time to the first HIV test reported by women during the study period. Results: We enrolled 600 women between September 2013 and March 2014 of whom 300 received weekly SMS and monthly surveys and 300 received only monthly surveys. On average, women were 21 years of age (interquartile range, 20–22), 71.50% had ever had sex and 72.62% had never tested for HIV. A total of 356 women reported testing for HIV within the 6 months of follow-up: 67% from the intervention arm and 51% from the control arm (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28–1.92). Conclusions: Use of weekly text messages about HIV prevention and reproductive health significantly increased rates of HIV testing among young Kenyan women and would be feasible to implement widely among school populations. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Online Sex Partner Meeting Venues as a Risk Factor for Testing HIV Positive Among a Community-Based Sample of Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

imageObjectives: In the United States, black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. The elevated estimates of HIV among BMSM suggest that to slow rates of HIV infections, a range of factors that may contribute to transmission must be researched. Use of online venues for seeking out sex partners is one such area that may further advance our understanding of risks for HIV among BMSM. Methods: Black men who have sex with men residing in Atlanta, GA, reporting HIV-negative/unknown status completed survey assessments and HIV antibody testing. Logistic regression using generalized linear modeling was used to conduct both bivariate and multivariable analyses of psychosocial variables—that is, substance use, sexually transmitted infection symptoms/diagnoses, sexual risk behavior, online sex partner meeting, and HIV test results. Results: Two hundred thirty-two BMSM tested HIV negative and 39 BMSM tested HIV positive (14% new diagnoses). Reporting symptoms of a rectal sexually transmitted infection (odds ratio, 4.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–15.41) and use of sexual networking apps (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.36) were both associated with testing HIV positive in a multivariable analysis. Conclusions: The use of sexual networking apps is associated with risks for HIV infection above and beyond what is captured by sexual risk behavior alone. Evaluating how sexual networking apps affect sexual networks and social norms regarding sexual risk taking and HIV transmission is an important and novel area for HIV prevention and intervention development. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

The Significance of Isolated Reactive Treponemal Enzyme Immunoassay in the Diagnosis of Early Syphilis

imageBackground: The Treponemal test algorithm for syphilis screening is widely used. A diagnostic challenge between identifying early syphilis versus a false positive signal occurs in cases where the treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is reactive and confirmatory T. pallidum particle agglutination assay is negative. We investigated the diagnostic outcome of isolated reactive EIA in patients attending a sexual health clinic. Methods: Results of syphilis serology tests carried out at Birmingham Whittall Street Clinic between August 10, 2010, and November 31, 2014, were reviewed. Cases with isolated EIA were routinely invited for repeat syphilis serology. Outcomes of patients with isolated EIA were reviewed and the proportion with confirmed positive syphilis serology on their repeat test identified. The number of isolated EIA cases needed to retest to identify 1 case of early syphilis was calculated. Results: A total of 121,724 syphilis screening tests were performed. Among the 1561 individual patients with reactive EIA sera, 316 (20% of total reactive tests) had isolated reactive EIA. Repeat syphilis serology results of 163 patients were reviewed; 106 patients remained with isolated reactive EIA, 50 had negative EIA test and 7 (4.3%) had confirmed reactive EIA. Of the 7 patients, 2 had evidence of early syphilis infection. The number of isolated EIA needed to retest to identify 1 case of early syphilis was 81.5 (95% confidence interval, 22.9–671.4). Conclusions: Routine recall of patients with isolated EIA sera is not warranted. Risk of acquisition or presence of early syphilis should be assessed independently and irrespective of a negative syphilis screening test or isolated EIA. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Rapid Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis by Testing Vaginal Swabs in an Isothermal Helicase-Dependent AmpliVue Assay

imageBackground: The AmpliVue Trichomonas Assay (Quidel) is a new Federal Drug Administration-cleared rapid test for qualitative detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) DNA in female vaginal specimens. The assay is based on BioHelix's helicase-dependent amplification isothermal technology in conjunction with a disposable lateral-flow detection device, with a total turnaround time of approximately 45 minutes. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of this new assay to wet preparation and culture as well as to another Federal Drug Administration-cleared nucleic acid amplification assay. Methods: Four clinician collected vaginal swabs were obtained from women attending sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and OB/GYN clinics and tested by AmpliVue Trichomonas Assay and comparator tests: saline microscopy, TV culture (InPouch), and Aptima TV. AmpliVue Trichomonas Assay results were compared with a composite positive comparator (CPC) as determined by the results from culture and/or wet mount microscopic examination. At least one of either the wet preparation or culture reference test results was required to be positive to establish CPC. Results: A total of 992 patients, 342 symptomatic and 650 asymptomatic patients, were included in the study. Results for AmpliVue for all women combined compared with saline microscopy and culture as a CPC yielded a sensitivity of 100%. Specificity for all women was 98.2%. Overall percent agreement versus Aptima TV was 97.8%. Sensitivity for AmpliVue compared with Aptima was 90.7% %, whereas specificity was 98.9%. Conclusions: The rapid AmpliVue Trichomonas Assay performed as well as microscopy and culture, and had comparable sensitivity and specificity to another nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of TV. This study provided evidence of new diagnostic options and indicated very good performance of amplified testing for detection of TV in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Did L Strains Responsible for Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis Spread Among People With Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in France in 2013?

imageAbstract: We retrospectively analyzed 1802 nonrectal Chlamydia trachomatis–positive specimens to determine if the L strains responsible for rectal Lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men could spread to the heterosexual population. No evidence for Lymphogranuloma venereum transmission among heterosexuals in France was observed in 2013. L2b strains seem to be restricted to the men who have sex with men population. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM
 

Comparison of Workflow, Maintenance, and Consumables in the GeneXpert Infinity 80 and Panther Instruments While Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

imageBackground: The 2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) using nucleic acid amplification tests, and prompt treatment of infected persons on site under direct observation. Faster time to results may enable treatment and management outcomes. Methods: Workflow parameters for processing 1, 10, 48, 96, and 192 tests were determined in the GeneXpert Infinity 80 (Cepheid) and Panther (Hologic) instruments. Results: In an Xpert CT/NG cartridge, the time to first results on the Infinity 80 was 1 hour 30 minutes for single or multiple tests and final results for 10, 48, 96, and 192 tests were available at 1 hour 37 minutes, 1 hour 54 minutes, 3 hour 17 minutes, and 5 hour 7 minutes, respectively. With the Aptima CT/GC assay on the Panther, the respective times were 3 hr 45 min for the first test result, and 3 hour 51 minutes, 4 hour 38 minutes, 5 hour 26 minutes, and 7 hour 4 minutes to final results. The Panther required more time for maintenance and consumed a greater variety of plastics and reagents but required less hands-on time when testing larger numbers of specimens. Conclusions: The Infinity 80 is a versatile instrument for continuous random access testing of small or large numbers of clinical specimens and may provide diagnostic results, in some settings, in time for treatment of CT and NG infections. 06/01/2016 01:00 AM