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Recent HIV Testing Prevalence, Determinants, and Disparities Among US Older Adult Respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

imageBackground: Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during health care visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50–64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among US adults in the 3 categories of older adulthood (50–54, 55–59, and 60–64 years) for which routine HIV testing is recommended. Method: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from US older adult respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated prevalence (proportions) of HIV testing by age category and race/ethnicity. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with recent HIV testing within and across age categories, by race/ethnicity and controlling for covariates. Results: HIV testing prevalence was low (<5%), varied by race/ethnicity, and decreased with age. Within and across age categories, the odds of testing were highest among blacks (odds ratio [OR], 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.82–4.25) and higher among Latinos (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.50–2.84) and the oldest and youngest categories of American Indians/Alaska Natives (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.11–5.55; OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.49–5.95) than among whites. Those reporting a recent doctor visit (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.92–2.74) or HIV risk behaviors (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.67–4.59) had higher odds of HIV testing. Conclusion: Regardless of risk, the oldest older adults, whites, and older women may forego HIV testing. Doctor visits may facilitate HIV testing. Additional research is needed to understand why eligible older adults seen by providers may not be screened for HIV infection. 08/01/2015 01:00 AM

At What Frequency Should Older Adults Receive HIV Testing?

No abstract available 08/01/2015 01:00 AM

Laboratory Capacity for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae—District of Columbia, 2007–2012

imageBackground: In the District of Columbia (DC), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) infections accounted for more than 25% of 9321 incident sexually transmitted infections reported in 2011; untreated infections can lead to reproductive complications and a higher risk for HIV transmission. In DC, limited capacity to measure the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae is available; culture-based antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is needed to monitor antimicrobial resistance. We examined the capacity of laboratories that report to the DC Department of Health to perform AST for ongoing surveillance of antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae and to identify suspected treatment failures. Methods: We created a survey about diagnostic methods for gonorrhea testing and identified 33 laboratories that reported gonorrhea results to Department of Health in 2007 to 2012. Laboratories were assessed for use of bacterial culture or nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for gonorrhea testing, prevalence of AST on gonorrhea-positive cultures, and types of antibiotics tested during AST. We estimated the prevalence of laboratory practices on the basis of self-report by staff. Results: Nineteen (58%) laboratories completed the survey, representing 92% of the gonorrhea reporting. Seventeen (89%) of 19 laboratories conducted testing by culture; only 6 (35%) performed AST; 79% performed NAAT. Barriers to AST included longer completion times and limited number of provider requests for AST. Commercial laboratories (32%) were more likely to conduct both culture and NAAT, compared with health care facilities (11%). Conclusions: We report a low prevalence of laboratories performing AST because of multiple barriers. State-specific strategies addressing these barriers are needed to improve detection of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea stains circulating among the population. 08/01/2015 01:00 AM

Generalized Testing for Gonococcal Antibiotic Susceptibility or Sentinel Surveillance

No abstract available 08/01/2015 01:00 AM

Influence of Insurance Status and Demographic Features on Recognition of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Gonorrhea Cases

imageAbstract: A random sample of individuals diagnosed as having gonorrhea from 2009 to 2013 were interviewed. Demographic and clinical features for asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals were examined to elucidate trends in medical care. Age, race, and sexually transmitted disease history had no association with the absence of symptoms (e.g., infection found by screening), whereas insurance coverage did for women. 08/01/2015 01:00 AM

Adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Gonococcal Treatment Guidelines Among Chicago Health Care Providers, 2011–2012

imageBackground: Expansion of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires rapid adaptation of treatment guidelines and responsive provider practice. We evaluated patient factors associated with provider adherence to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention gonococcal treatment recommendations among Chicago providers in 2011 to 2012. Methods: Laboratory-confirmed cases of uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea were classified via surveillance data as originating from Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) or non-CDPH providers. Recommended treatment was determined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines: April 2011–July 2012 (period 1) and August–December 2012 (period 2, after August 2012 revision). Multivariable log-binomial regression identified factors associated with recommended treatment over time, stratified by provider type. Results: April 2011 through December 2012, 16,646 laboratory-confirmed gonorrhea cases were identified, of which 9597 (57.7%) had treatment information: 2169 CDPH cases and 7428 non-CDPH cases. Documented recommended treatment increased for CDPH (period 1: 71.3%, period 2: 80.8%; P < 0.01) and non-CDPH providers (period 1: 63.5%, period 2: 68.9%; P < 0.01). Among CDPH cases, statistically significant factors associated with recommended treatment were male sex (adjusted prevalence rate ratio [aPRR], 1.16) white versus black race (aPRR, 0.68), same-day treatment (aPRR, 1.07), and period 2 (aPRR, 1.11). Among non-CDPH cases, statistically significant factors were as follows: male sex (aPRR, 1.10), other versus black race (aPRR, 0.91), same-day treatment (aPRR, 1.31), greater number of within-facility reported cases (aPRRs ranging from 1.22 to 1.41), and at least 50% within-facility missing treatment data (aPRR, 0.84). Conclusions: Recommended treatment improved over time, yet remains suboptimal. Efforts to reduce variability and improve provider adherence to recommended treatment are urgently needed. 08/01/2015 01:00 AM

Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Selected US Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics: Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network, January 2010–December 2011

imageBackground: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains an important source of preventable reproductive morbidity, but no recent studies have singularly focused on US sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in relationship to established guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Of the 83,076 female patients seen in 14 STD clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network, 1080 (1.3%) were diagnosed as having PID from 2010 to 2011. A random sample of 219 (20%) women were selected, and medical records were reviewed for clinical history, examination findings, treatment, and diagnostic testing. Our primary outcomes were to evaluate how well PID diagnosis and treatment practices in STD clinic settings follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) treatment guidelines and to describe age group–specific rates of laboratory-confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) in patients clinically diagnosed as having PID in the last 12 months, inclusive of the PID visit. Results: Among the 219 women, 70.3% of the cases met the CDC treatment case definition for PID, 90.4% had testing for CT and GC on the PID visit, and 68.0% were treated with a CDC-recommended outpatient regimen. In the last 12 months, 95.4% were tested for CT or GC, and positivity for either organism was 43.9% in women aged 25 years or younger with PID, compared with 19.4% of women older than 25 years with PID. Conclusions: Compliance with CDC guidelines was documented for many of the women with PID, though not all. Our findings underscore the need for continued efforts to optimize quality of care and adherence to current guidance for PID management given the anticipated expertise of providers in these settings. 08/01/2015 01:00 AM

Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates Obtained From Women and Men

imageBackground: The US system for gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance monitors trends exclusively among men with urethral infection, the population from whom the yield of gonococcal culture is highest. Little is known about the susceptibility of female urogenital isolates, and it is unclear whether gonococcal susceptibility among men who report sex exclusively with women (MSW) is representative of susceptibility among women. Methods: Using isolates collected during a recent treatment trial in 5 US cities, we performed a secondary analysis to compare antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae urogenital isolates obtained from women, MSW, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Pretreatment isolates were collected from trial participants; minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Geometric mean MICs were adjusted for geographic location using general linear models. Results: Susceptibility data for urogenital isolates from 56 women, 252 MSW, and 170 MSM were studied. The adjusted geometric mean ceftriaxone MIC was similar among women (0.0067 μg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0049–0.0092 μg/mL) and MSW (0.0060 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.0053–0.0066 μg/mL). In contrast, the adjusted geometric mean ceftriaxone MIC was higher among MSM (0.0098 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.0082–0.0119 μg/mL) than among MSW. This same pattern was observed for other antimicrobials, including cefixime and azithromycin Conclusions: Ceftriaxone, cefixime, and azithromycin MICs were higher among MSM than among MSW, but were similar among women and MSW. These findings suggest that gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance based on urethral isolates from MSW may adequately represent susceptibility of urogenital N. gonorrhoeae in women. 08/01/2015 01:00 AM